A few months ago, Ginbot 7’s research team presented an extensive list of the top military commanders of the Woyane regime including their names, their position in the military and their ethnic background. That meticulously researched study showed how the current military of Meles Zenawi’s regime is totally dominated by one ethnic group where by some 95% of the top brass of the military emanate from the Tigrian ethnic group representing about 6% of the population. While this was a shocking revelation to Ethiopians and foreign observers alike, some apologists of the Woyane regime, presented this as a natural development similar to the dominance of the Shewa Amharas during the imperial regime and the broader ethnic Amharas that supposedly dominated the Derge regime. We felt at the time that this argument was problematic for two reasons. First, the nature of ethnic dominance that is observed during the Woyane period seemed to be more purposeful, calculated and certainly more excessive than any of the regimes in the past. Second, even if there was systematic ethnic dominance in the past, it surely does not justify the perpetuation of dominance by a new group, which would only increase ethnic animosity and destabilize the society further.
While the second point is self evident, our first point needed some investigation to present a solid proof for our contention. At the time, we promised to do a detailed study of the military command and personnel of the earlier two regimes for comparison with our study of the Woyane period. The first portion of that study is now complete. We will briefly summarize the main findings below, and attach the three tables for the reader to go through the detailed observation. A note on the data is also attached to make it easier for the reader to follow the information on the tables.
This study has been conducted with the help of a large number of people mainly involving former military officers who know the institution well and the people involved. We have involved a significant number of people to verify the accuracy of our description of the people involved and their role in the military. We are very thankful for their assistance and we hope their cooperation will continue as we do the second phase of the study involving the lower ranking officers at the Birgadier General level. We also thank some family members of these officers who helped us in cross checking the ethnic identities.
2. Main findings:
Contrary to the long held claim of the Woyane propagandists, this careful study reveals that the top military brass of the Ethiopian state, although not directly proportional, was much more broadly representative of the country’s ethnic configuration than is commonly claimed. When seen along with our earlier study of the top military brass of the Woyane regime, both the Derge and the imperial periods showed a much more representative picture of the country’s ethnic mixture in the military leadership. As can be seen, persons of various ethnic groups successfully made it to the highest positions such as Chief of Staff and Commanders of Armies (Serawit/Hayiel), Command (Eze), Core (Kore), and Division (Kifle Tore).
With one notable exception, we took officers over and above the Major General level for this study because of the significant actual power they hold in the military rank at their time of service. There was a very close correlation between military rank and actual power at the time.
A cursory look at the data shows that broadly speaking the Amharas dominated the imperial army top brass holding 55.5% of the top positions, while the Shewa Amharas, who supposedly were in control of the state represent only 20% of the military leadership during the imperial period.
The second largest representation was that of people with mixed heritage with 15.5%, followed by Oromos with 13.3%. Eritreans and Tigreans with 11.1% and Gurages at 4.4%.
The Derge period brought a significant improvement from the imperial period not only by including hitherto unrepresented groups to the top brass (Wolayita and Harari) but also by spreading the representation relatively more evenly. Accordingly, the Amhara representation, although still high compared with the size of its population, was decreased to 45%, of which the Shewa Amhara representation decreased further to 17.5%.
On the other hand, Oromo representation increased to 25% bringing it closer to its proportional size to the population. Indicative of the increasing inter marriage between ethnic communities, those with mixed heritage account for 17.5% of the top military brass during the Derge period followed by Gurage (5%), Tigray/Eritrea, Wolayita and Harari each with 2.5% representation. We encourage the reader to look at these figures along with the ethnic distribution among the whole population. We also wish to direct the reader to read this numbers with the earlier study of power distribution in the current Woyane military.
We have presented the detailed table below for the reader to check the veracity of this study and reach his/her own conclusion about the nature of ethnocentric distribution of power during the previous two regimes. We wish to note here that our aim in doing this and the earlier study on the composition of the Woyane military brass, is not to argue that ethnic identity and proportional representation along ethnic lines should be the basis for appointing career military officers. Far from it. We actually would like to see an Ethiopia where the capability of citizens shall be the most important criteria for appointing public officials in so far as the process is fair, equitable and transparent. We also note that before Woyane’s usurpation of power in Ethiopia, previous regimes never openly and officially used ethnicity as the criteria for government appointment. It is Woyane who brought the issue to the fore, claimed to bring ethnic equality in the country and shamelessly made ethnicity the quintessential criteria for defining one’s identity. Woyane insisted on being measured by the criteria of equitable ethnic distribution of power as a justification for its rule.
Our aim is therefore to show the hypocrisy of this ethnocentric mafia group that claims to bring ethnic calculus as the sole criteria for distribution of power in the country while allocating the lion’s share of power to the benefit of its own minority ethnic group. What is amazing about this group is its audacity. A group that represents 6% of the population claims 95% of the top military brass in the country, and blames previous regimes for playing it unfair. It is this same group that purportedly fought for 17 years against the Derge regime in the name of bringing ethnic equality. It is now clear what it really wishes to achieve. To use ethnicity to divide the nation and maintain its hold on power, while using this power to bleed the country dry for the benefit of the small group of bandits that are shamelessly stealing the resources of some 80 million poor souls. This simply cannot, and should not stand.
Finally, It is also our aim to show the slippery nature of ethnic based politics and the danger it poses to our collective survival as a free and stable multi ethnic society. Surely we should all be sensitive to issues of equity and social justice. We should always be ready to lift those that have been left behind because of the trajectories of our history. We should commit ourselves to justice and the equality of all citizens of our country. But, we should also know that it is only when we are united as citizens of a free country whose rights are respected and who are ruled by people of our own choosing that we have a chance to achieve these lofty objectives.
We should have little room for those who appeal to our basest instincts for the purpose of dividing us and subjecting us to live under the yoke of intolerable tyranny.
1. Brief Notes on the study.
a. The vexing problem in undertaking this study has been to put a firm handle on who has what ethnic background. It seems as if the two eras. The Emperor’s and that of the Derg were mostly, if not totally blind, as to who has what kind of ethnic background.There are several instances where we were given the ethnic background of the generals to be from this or that ethnic group. But in several instances, it ends up being overturned by another person involved in the checking and counterchecking process.
Despite the involvement of several officers starting from the rank of general down to majors from all departments of the armed forces, the challenge of certainty when it comes to ethnic background has increased as the number increased when we go down the ladder in the military hierarchy.
One method we used in this study to minimize committing gross errors is to give the names to several officers from all forces to provide their tally. We have taken what the majority have agreed the case to be. There may well be a 5% margin of error in ethnic identification but not more in this study, where we take the rank of major general and above with the top military posts in the country. That may increase in the study that we will issue in the near future where we are sifting through the background of over 200 Birgadier Generals from both the Emperor and Derg era.
b. The study has solicited the help and input of several former officers – from generals to other officers –from Air force, Ground Force, and Navy. It has also solicited a learned review from knowledgeable civilians who had intimate knowledge of both periods (including close relatives) to verify the final version.
2. Keys to symbols:
a. **** shows those non-Derg members but loyal to Col Mengistu. Gebre Kirstos Bulli, the only Big General in the list is included because he was among a handful of officers the Derg promoted to a rank of General for the first time. He was also the most influenatial milliary officer directly reporting to the Chairman of the Derg, and having parallel positions with the Defense Minsistry’s Military Operations Main Department. He was presumed killed in the early 1980s after attempting to escape via Djibouti and having fallen out of grace with Col Mengistu as a result of a fist fight with then Chief of Staff Merid Negussie.
b.*** Means those who were members of the Derg but got to their position following the professional track and stayed in the military unlike their colleagues who were transferred from civilian life to military at a later period.
c. **. Derg members who were promoted to the rank of General and Admiral after more than a decade of life as civilian officials , Derg and WPE reps, and ministers with their initial ranks as majors, colonels, Lt, Commanders etc when they became Derg members in 1974. Almost all of them were transferred and promoted to the military after the aborted coup of 1989.
d. *. Those who were not Derg members but were deemed loyal and also capable enough to fill the vacuum created after the coup of 1989.
e. All those without any asterisk marks are carrier professionals who made it to the military hierarchy step by step based on their merit, time of service, education and training, and military exploits in the east, south, and northern fronts. Their training and education was not only in country at Holeta , Harar Academy, etc. but training in the best military schools in US, Europe, Israel etc.
Table 1: The most senior officers of the armed forces and police of the Imperial regime – up to 1974
|No||Full Name||Rank||Highest known Position Held During The Imperial Regime||Ethnicity||Remarks|
|1.||Kebede Gebre||Lt. General (Army)||Minister of Defense||Amhara|
|2.||Merid Mengesha||Lt. General||Minister of Defense||Amhara|
|3||Eyasu Mengesha||Lt. General (Army)||Chief of Staff of Imperial Armed forces||Tigre|
|4||Abieye Abebe||Lt. General (Army)||Minister of Defense||Amhara|
|5||Esayas Gebre Selassie||Lt. General (Army)||Commander in Chief of Ground Forces||Tigre|
|6||Haile Baykedagen||Lt. General (Army)||Chief Staff of the Imperial Armed forces, Division Commander||Tigre, Amhara|
|7||Abebe Gemeda||Lt. General (Army)||Commander of Imperial Bodyguard||Oromo|
|8||Assefa Ayane||Lt. General (Army, Air force)||Chief of Staff of Imperial Armed Forces, Commander of the Air Force.||Amhara|
|9||Wolde Selassie Bereka||Lt. General (Army)||Chief of Staff of the Imperial Armed forces, Commander in Chief of Ground forces||Gurage|
|10||Deressie Dubale||Lt. General (Army)||Commander in Chief of Ground Forces||Gurage & Amhara|
|11||Mulugeta Bulli||Maj. General** (Army)||Chief of Staff of the Imperial Armed forces, later made civilian, a minister of Social affairs||Oromo||Leading role in organizing the Armed forces after Fascist invasion|
|12||Assefa Demisse||Lt . General||Head of Protocol to the Emperor||Amhara & Oromo|
|13||Yilma Shibeshi||Lt. General (Police)||Commander of Imperial Police Forces||Gurage & Amhara|
|14.||Belete Abebe||Lt. General||Chief of Staff , Territorial Army||Amhara|
|15||Teshome Ergetu||Lt. General (Army)||Division Commander||Gurage & Oromo||Killed by rebels in Eritrea before the revolution 1974|
|16||Jagama Kello||Lt. General (Army)||Division Commander||Oromo||A patriot who led 3000 patriots and fought during the Fascist Italy’s invasion.|
|17||Nega Haile Selassie||Lt. General (Army)||Emperor’s Special Cabinet||Amhara|
|18.||Debebe Haile Mariam||Lt. General (Army)||Commander of Imperial Body guard||Amhara|
|19||Aman Mickael Andom||Lt. General (Army)||Division Commander||Tigre||During the Derg Minister of Defense. Then, Head of State|
|20||Abebe Wolde Meskel||Maj. General||Commander of Police force||Amhara|
|21||Degneh Gusgsa||Maj. General (Army)||Division Commander||Oromo|
|22.||Shiferaw Tesema||Maj. General||Senior staff of Ground forces||Amhara|
|23||Yakob Gebre Leul||Maj. General||Senior Staff, Ground Forces||Eritrea|
|24.||Tadesse Melke||Maj. General (Army)||Commander of Genet Millitary Training Center||Amhara|
|25.||Abera Wolde Mariam||Maj General (Air force)||Commander of the Air Force||Oromo & Amhara|
|26.||Tafesse Lemma||Maj General||Division Commander and Palace protocol||Amhara & Gurage|
|27||Kebede Worku||Maj. General||Division commander||Amhara|
|28||Wolde Tsadik Gebere Meskel||Maj. General||Deputy Commander Imperial Bodyguard||Gurage|
|29||Tsige Gezmu||Maj. General||Budget and Finance Head Ministery of Defense||Amhara|
|30||Gashaw Kebede||Maj. General||Police commander of Eritrea||Amhara|
|31||Abebe Wolde Mariam||Maj. General (Army)||Senior staff in Ground forces||Amhara|
|32||Bereket G. Medhin||Maj. General||Police Commander in Kaffa||Tigre|
|33||Kelebesa Beka||Maj. General||Commander of police in Sidamo||Oromo|
|34||Girma Mulat||Maj. General||Police Commander||Amhara|
|35||Kebede Wogaye||Maj. General||Deputy Commander Imperial Bodyguard||Amhara|
|36||Abebe Wolde Selassie||Maj. General||Police commander in Wollo||Amhara|
|37||Siyuom Gedle Giorgis||Maj. General (Army)||Division Commander||Amhara|
|38||Moges Beyene||Maj. General||Commander of Police in Gamo Goffa||Amhara|
|39||Gizaw Belayneh||Maj. General (Army)||Division Commander,||Amhara||Chief of staff early Derg.|
|40||Merid Gizaw||Maj. General (Army)||Senior staff Ministry of Defense , Divisional Commander||Amhara|
|41||Tadesse Gebre||Maj. General||Police Commander||Amhara|
|42||Wakjira Sarda||Maj. General||Senior Staff , Minister of Defense, Division Commander||Oromo|
|43||Nega Tegene||Maj. General (Army)||Division Commander||Amhara|
|44||Tedla Mekonnen||Maj. General||Deputy Commander Ground Forces||Amhara|
Table 2: The Socialist Military Derg Regime, later PDR Highest Ranking Army, Air force, Navy and Police Officers
|No||Full Name||Rank||Highest known Position Held During The Derg regime||Ethnicity & Region||Remarks|
|1||Tesfaye Gebre Kidan||Lt. General (Army)||Minister of Defense||Oromo||Derg Standing committee & WPE Politburo member, one of the most powerful persons in the system, Vice President after 1986. President for one week.|
|2||Haile Giorgis Habte Mariam||Maj. General (Imp. Bodyguard, 2nd course)||Minister of Defense||Amhara||Chief of Staff Under Lt. Gen. Tesfaye , took over as Minster of Defense|
|3||Merid Negussie||Maj. General (Imp. Bodyguard, 3rd course)||Chief of Staff||Oromo||Chief of Staff , committed suicide during the 1981 aborted coup|
|4||Gebre Kirstos Bulli||Brig General (Army, Holeta)||Chief/head of Derg’s National Military Campaign Department||Oromo||Subsumed and oversaw functions of Defense Ministry operations Department, parallel but more powerful structure under the Chairman of the Derg himself until 1984.|
|5||Hailu Gebere Michael||Maj. General (Army, Holeta)||Commander of the Ground Forces||Oromo & Gurage||Executed after the aborted coup of 1989.|
|6||Tesfaye Birhanu||R. Admiral (Navy, 1st course)||Commander of the Navy||Wolayita||Imprisoned after the 1989 aborted coup.|
|7||Fanata Belay||Maj. General (Airforce)||Commander of the Air Force||Amhara||Killed after the 1989 coup while in prison.|
|8||Demissie Bulto||Maj. General (Imp. Bodyguard, 3rd course, Airborne)||Commander of the 2nd Revolutionary Army, Eritrea||Oromo||Killed during the aborted coup of 1989|
|9||Amaha Desta||Maj. General (Air force)||Commander of the Air Force||Amhara||Committed suicide during the aborted coup of 1989.|
|10||Zeleke Beyene||Maj. General (Army, Holeta)||Commander of the 4th Revolutionary Army (Central)||Amhara||Member of the Derg Central Committee, promoted from Col to Maj. General after serving many years as a civilian. Served until 1991.|
|11||Asrat Biru||Maj. General (Imp. Bodyguard, 3rd course)||Commander of the 3rd Army (Tigray)||Oromo||Held various high level positions|
|12.||Haddis Tedla||Lt. General (Air force)||Chief of Staff||Amhara||Dergue’s Standing Committee & WPE politburo member, promoted after the coup from a rank of a major and long time life as civilian top official. Served until 1991|
|13||Mesfin Gebre Kal||Maj. General (Army, Harar Academy, Sandhurst)||Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations||Tigre||Son of a patriot who fought the Italians during the fascist invasion, previously held high level positions in the minister of Defense, promoted after the coup -1991|
|14||Yewalashet Girma||R. Admiral (Navy)||Commander of the Navy||Amhara & Gurage||Derg & WPE CC member, promoted after the 1981 coup from a long life as a civilian minster and a Lt. Commander to R. Admiral, held until 1991|
|15||Sioum Mekonnen||Maj. General (Army, Holeta)||Deputy Chief of Staff for Intel.||Amhara||Promoted as Deputy Chief of Staff after the coup of 1989. Held the position until 1991.|
|16||Abebe Wolde Mariam||Maj., General (Air Force)||Deputy Minister of Defense for logistics||Gurage and Amhara||From early years to 1983|
|17||Alemayheu Agonafer||Maj. General (Air force)||Commander of the Air Force||Amhara||Promoted after the coup of 1989 and held until 1991.|
|18||Embibel Ayele||Maj. General (Army, Harar Academy 1st course)||Commander of the Ground Forces||Amhara||Promoted after 1989 and held the position until 1991|
|19||Berhanu Jembere||Maj. General (Army, Holeta)||Commander of the 1st Revolutionary Army||Amhara||Promoted from a Major and a civilian official. Died of plane crash before 1991.|
|20||Wubshet Dessie||Maj. General (Army, Harar Academy)||Commander of the 2nd Revolutionary Army (Eritrea)||Oromo||Derg Standing Committee member, a major who was a long time civilian, promoted after the 1989 coup.|
|21||Kefelgen Yibza||Maj. General (Army, Holeta)||Commander of Central Command, Commander of ground forces||Sodo Gurage||Held various high level positions in the military until 1991.|
|22||Tilahun Argaw||Maj. General (Army, Holeta)||Core commander, Commander of Special Command, Assab||Gurage & Amhara||Until 1991.|
|23||Regassa JImma||Maj. General (Imp. Body Guard, 3rd course)||Commander of the 2nd Revolutionary Army||Oromo||Held various high positions in the military as a commander and commandant of the Holeta Military Academy, until 1991|
|24||Getachew Gedamu||Maj. General (Army, Holeta)||Deputy Commander of 1st Revolutinary Army (Harar)||Amhara||Held various high level positions until 1991|
|25||Kinfe Gebrel Dinku||Maj. General (Imp. Bodyguard, 3rd course)||Head of Mil. Operations Ministry of Defense||Gurage||Held various high positions until 1991|
|26||Hussien Ahmed||Maj. General (Army, Harar Academy 1st course)||Deputy Commander of 2st Revolutionary Army (Eritrea)||Amhara||Held the position before and after 1989 coup until he fled to Saudi Araba with other top generals in Eritrea in 1991.|
|27||Alemayehu Ayele||Maj. General (Army , Holeta)||Deputy Commander for Logistics of Ground Forces||Amhara||Until 1991|
|28||Bedlu Duki||Maj. General (Army, Holeta)||Head of Logistics Ministry of Defense||Oromo from Showa||Until 1991|
|29||Wegayehu Gashaw||Maj. General (Army, Holeta)||Deputy Commander 2nd Revolutionary Army||Amhara & Oromo (Mixed)||Held various positions Until 1991|
|30||Merdasa Lelisa||Maj. General (Army, Holeta)||Core commander, Commander of Tewodros Task force 1991||Oromo||Until 1991|
|31||Abera Abebe||Maj. General (Army, special force, Holeta)||Chief/Head of Military Operations Department Minster of Defense||Oromo||Killed after the aborted coup of 1989|
|32||Abdulahi Umer||Maj General (Army, Harar Academy 1st course)||Head of Logistics Minister of Defense||Aderi||Imprisoned after the 1989 coup.|
|33||Mulatu Negash||Maj. General (Imp. Bodyguard)||Commander of the third Revo Army,||Mixed||Imprisoned after the army’s’ defeat in Tigray until 1991.|
|34||Kumleachew Dejene||Maj. General (Army, Holeta)||Deputy Commander of the 2nd Revo Army (Eritrea)||Amhara||Fled to exile after the 1989 coup.|
|35||Worku Zewdie||Maj. General||Commander of Ethiopian Police Forces||Amhara||Executed after the aborted coup Of 1989.|
|36||Zewde Gebreyes||Maj. General||Core Commander||Amhara||Executed after the aborted coup of 1989|
|37||Alemayehu Desta||Maj. General||Deputy Commander of Ground Forces||Amhara||Executed after the aborted coup of 1989.|
|38||Gebreyes Wolde Hana||Maj. General||Head of Political Department of the Revo. Armed Forces||Amhara||Derg & WPE CC member, but assigned as head of military cadres from early days. Killed in a plane crash accident before 1991.|
|39||Negussie Wolde Michael||Maj. General||Commander of Ethiopian Police Forces pre 1986||Amhara||Later transferred as a civilian Minister in the Council of State.|
|40||Girma Neway||Maj. General||Commander of Ethiopian Police Forces after 1989 Aborted coup||Amhara & Gurage||Derg & WPE CC member, promoted from a long life as civilian Major after the 1989 coup.|
Table 3: Ethiopian Army by Ethnic Tigrean officers High Ranking Military Officials Principal Defense Departments (Woyane)
|No||Job Division||Name & Rank||Ethnic Group|
|1||Armed Forces Chief-of-Staff||General Smora Yenus||Tigre|
|2||Armed Forces Head of Training||Lt.General Tadesse Worde||Tigre|
|3||Head of Logistics||Lt.General Gezae Abera||Tigre|
|4||Head of Intelligence||Br. General Gebre Dela||Tigre|
|5||Armed Forces Head of Campaign||Major General Gebreegzher||Tigre|
|6||Armed Forces Head of Engineering||Lt.General Berhane Negash||Tigre|
|7||Chief of the Air Force||Br. General Molla Haile Mariam||Tigre|
Table 4: Heads of the Nation’s four Military Commands (Woyane)
|No||Job Division||Name & Rank||Ethnic Group|
|1||Central Command||General Abebaw Tadesse||Agew|
|2||Northern Command||Lt.General Saere Mekonene||Tigre|
|3||South Eastern Command||Lt.General Abraha Wolde||Tigre|
|4||Western Command||Br. General Seyoum Hagos||Tigre|
Table 5: Army Divisional Commanders (Woyane) Central Command
|No||Job Description||Name and Rank||Ethnic Back Ground|
|1||31st Army Division||Colonel Tsegaye Marx||Tigre|
|2||33rd Army Division||Colonel Kidane||Tigre|
|3||35th Army Division||Colonel Misganaw Alemu||Tigre|
|4||24th Army Division||Colonel Work Aynu||Tigre|
|5||22nd Army Division||Colonel Dikul||Tigre|
|6||8th Mechanized Division||Colonel Jamal Mohammed||Tigre|
Table 6: Northern Command (Woyane) South Eastern Command (Woyane)
|1||21st Army Division||Colonel Gueshi Gebre||Tigre|
|2||11th Army Division||Colonel Workidu||Tigre|
|3||25th Army Division||Colonel Tesfay Sahiel||Tigre|
|4||22nd Army Division||Colonel Teklay Klashin||Tigre|
|5||4th Mechanized Division||Colonel Hinsaw Giorgis||Tigre|
|No||Job Description||Name and Rank||Ethnic Back Ground|
|1||19st Army Division||Colonel Wodi Guaae||Tigre|
|2||44st Army Division||Colonel Zewdu Tefera||Tigre|
|3||13th Army Division||Colonel Sherifo||Tigre|
|4||12th Army Division||Colonel Mulugeta Berhe||Tigre|
|5||32nd Army Division||Colonel Abraha Tselim||Tigre|
|6||6th Mechanized Division||Colonel G/Medhin Fekede||Tigre|
Table 8: Western Command (Woyane)
|No||Job Description||Name and Rank||Ethnic Back Ground|
|1||23rd Army Division||Colonel Wolde Belalom||Tigre|
|2||43rd Army Division||Colonel Wodi Abate||Tigre|
|3||26th Army Division||Colonel Mebrahtu||Tigre|
|4||7th Mechanized Division||Colonel Gebre Mariam||Tigre|
Table 9: Commanders in Different Defense Departments (Woyane)
|No||Job Description||Military rank||Name||Ethnic Back Ground|
|1||Agazi Commando Division||B.General||Mohammed Esha||Tigre|
|2||Addis Ababa & Surrounding Area Guard||Colonel||Zenebe Amare||Tigre|
|4||Banking Guard||Colonel||Hawaz Woldu||Tigre|
|5||Engineering College||Colonel||Halefom Eggigu||Tigre|
|6||Military Health Science||B.General||Tesfay Gidey||Tigre|
|7||Mulugeta Buli Technical College||Colonel||Meleya Amare||Tigre|
|8||Resource Management College||Colonel||Letay||Tigre|
|9||Siftana Command College||B.General||Moges Haile||Tigre|
|10||Blaten Military Training Center||Colonel||Salih Berihu||Tigre|
|11||Wourso Military Training Center||Colonel||Negash Heluf||Tigre|
|12||Awash Arba Military Training Center||Colonel||Muze||Tigre|
|13||Birr Valley Military Training Center||Colonel||Negassie Shikortet||Tigre|
|14||Defense Administration Department||B.General||Mehari Zewde||Tigre|
|15||Defense Aviation||B.General||Kinfe Dagnew||Tigre|
|16||Defense Research and Study||B.General||Halefom Chento||Tigre|
|17||Defense Justice Department||Colonel||Askale||Tigre|
|18||Secretary of the Chief-of-Staff||Colonel||Tsehaye Manjus||Tigre|
|19||Indoctrination Center||B.General||Akale Asaye||Amhara|
|21||Foreign Relations Department||Colonel||Hassene||Tigre|
|22||Special Forces Coordination Department||B.General||Fisseha Manjus||Tigre|
|23||Operations Department||Colonel||Wodi Tewk||Tigre|
|24||Planning, Readiness and Programming Department||Colonel||Teklay Ashebir||Tigre|
|25||Defense Industries Coordination Department||Colonel||Wodi Negash||Tigre|
|26||Defense Finance Department||Colonel||Zewdu||Tigre|
|27||Defense Purchasing Department||Colonel||Gedey||Tigre|
|28||Defense Budget Department||Ato/Mr.||Berhane||Tigre|
*We produced the Graphics & Appendices using the data in the report by Ginbot 7 Movement for Justice, Freedom and Democracy.