Ethiopian Military Leadership & Ethnocentrism

1. Introduction

A few months ago, Ginbot 7’s research team presented an extensive list of the top military commanders of the Woyane regime including their names, their position in the military and their ethnic background. That meticulously researched study showed how the current military of Meles Zenawi’s regime is totally dominated by one ethnic group where by some 95% of the top brass of the military emanate from the Tigrian ethnic group representing about 6% of the population. While this was a shocking revelation to Ethiopians and foreign observers alike, some apologists of the Woyane regime, presented this as a natural development similar to the dominance of the Shewa Amharas during the imperial regime and the broader ethnic Amharas that supposedly dominated the Derge regime. We felt at the time that this argument was problematic for two reasons. First, the nature of ethnic dominance that is observed during the Woyane period seemed to be more purposeful, calculated and certainly more excessive than any of the regimes in the past. Second, even if there was systematic ethnic dominance in the past, it surely does not justify the perpetuation of dominance by a new group, which would only increase ethnic animosity and destabilize the society further.

While the second point is self evident, our first point needed some investigation to present a solid proof for our contention. At the time, we promised to do a detailed study of the military command and personnel of the earlier two regimes for comparison with our study of the Woyane period. The first portion of that study is now complete. We will briefly summarize the main findings below, and attach the three tables for the reader to go through the detailed observation. A note on the data is also attached to make it easier for the reader to follow the information on the tables.

This study has been conducted with the help of a large number of people mainly involving former military officers who know the institution well and the people involved. We have involved a significant number of people to verify the accuracy of our description of the people involved and their role in the military. We are very thankful for their assistance and we hope their cooperation will continue as we do the second phase of the study involving the lower ranking officers at the Birgadier General level. We also thank some family members of these officers who helped us in cross checking the ethnic identities.

2. Main findings:

Contrary to the long held claim of the Woyane propagandists, this careful study reveals that the top military brass of the Ethiopian state, although not directly proportional, was much more broadly representative of the country’s ethnic configuration than is commonly claimed. When seen along with our earlier study of the top military brass of the Woyane regime, both the Derge and the imperial periods showed a much more representative picture of the country’s ethnic mixture in the military leadership. As can be seen, persons of various ethnic groups successfully made it to the highest positions such as Chief of Staff and Commanders of Armies (Serawit/Hayiel), Command (Eze), Core (Kore), and Division (Kifle Tore).

With one notable exception, we took officers over and above the Major General level for this study because of the significant actual power they hold in the military rank at their time of service. There was a very close correlation between military rank and actual power at the time.

A cursory look at the data shows that broadly speaking the Amharas dominated the imperial army top brass holding 55.5% of the top positions, while the Shewa Amharas, who supposedly were in control of the state represent only 20% of the military leadership during the imperial period.

*Graphics &  Appendices: Courtesy of EthioSun, Voice for the Voiceless

The second largest representation was that of people with mixed heritage with 15.5%, followed by Oromos with 13.3%. Eritreans and Tigreans with 11.1% and Gurages at 4.4%.

*Graphics &  Appendices: Courtesy of EthioSun, Voice for the Voiceless

The Derge period brought a significant improvement from the imperial period not only by including hitherto unrepresented groups to the top brass (Wolayita and Harari) but also by spreading the representation relatively more evenly. Accordingly, the Amhara representation, although still high compared with the size of its population, was decreased to 45%, of which the Shewa Amhara representation decreased further to 17.5%.

*Graphics &  Appendices: Courtesy of EthioSun, Voice for the Voiceless

On the other hand, Oromo representation increased to 25% bringing it closer to its proportional size to the population. Indicative of the increasing inter marriage between ethnic communities, those with mixed heritage account for 17.5% of the top military brass during the Derge period followed by Gurage (5%), Tigray/Eritrea, Wolayita and Harari each with 2.5% representation. We encourage the reader to look at these figures along with the ethnic distribution among the whole population. We also wish to direct the reader to read this numbers with the earlier study of power distribution in the current Woyane military.

*Graphics &  Appendices: Courtesy of EthioSun, Voice for the Voiceless

We have presented the detailed table below for the reader to check the veracity of this study and reach his/her own conclusion about the nature of ethnocentric distribution of power during the previous two regimes. We wish to note here that our aim in doing this and the earlier study on the composition of the Woyane military brass, is not to argue that ethnic identity and proportional representation along ethnic lines should be the basis for appointing career military officers. Far from it. We actually would like to see an Ethiopia where the capability of citizens shall be the most important criteria for appointing public officials in so far as the process is fair, equitable and transparent. We also note that before Woyane’s usurpation of power in Ethiopia, previous regimes never openly and officially used ethnicity as the criteria for government appointment. It is Woyane who brought the issue to the fore, claimed to bring ethnic equality in the country and shamelessly made ethnicity the quintessential criteria for defining one’s identity. Woyane insisted on being measured by the criteria of equitable ethnic distribution of power as a justification for its rule.

Our aim is therefore to show the hypocrisy of this ethnocentric mafia group that claims to bring ethnic calculus as the sole criteria for distribution of power in the country while allocating the lion’s share of power to the benefit of its own minority ethnic group. What is amazing about this group is its audacity. A group that represents 6% of the population claims 95% of the top military brass in the country, and blames previous regimes for playing it unfair. It is this same group that purportedly fought for 17 years against the Derge regime in the name of bringing ethnic equality. It is now clear what it really wishes to achieve. To use ethnicity to divide the nation and maintain its hold on power, while using this power to bleed the country dry for the benefit of the small group of bandits that are shamelessly stealing the resources of some 80 million poor souls. This simply cannot, and should not stand.

*Graphics &  Appendices: Courtesy of EthioSun, Voice for the Voiceless

Finally, It is also our aim to show the slippery nature of ethnic based politics and the danger it poses to our collective survival as a free and stable multi ethnic society. Surely we should all be sensitive to issues of equity and social justice. We should always be ready to lift those that have been left behind because of the trajectories of our history. We should commit ourselves to justice and the equality of all citizens of our country. But, we should also know that it is only when we are united as citizens of a free country whose rights are respected and who are ruled by people of our own choosing that we have a chance to achieve these lofty objectives.

*Graphics &  Appendices: Courtesy of EthioSun, Voice for the Voiceless

We should have little room for those who appeal to our basest instincts for the purpose of dividing us and subjecting us to live under the yoke of intolerable tyranny.

1. Brief Notes on the study.

a. The vexing problem in undertaking this study has been to put a firm handle on who has what ethnic background. It seems as if the two eras. The Emperor’s and that of the Derg were mostly, if not totally blind, as to who has what kind of ethnic background.There are several instances where we were given the ethnic background of the generals to be from this or that ethnic group. But in several instances, it ends up being overturned by another person involved in the checking and counterchecking process.

Despite the involvement of several officers starting from the rank of general down to majors from all departments of the armed forces, the challenge of certainty when it comes to ethnic background has increased as the number increased when we go down the ladder in the military hierarchy.

One method we used in this study to minimize committing gross errors is to give the names to several officers from all forces to provide their tally. We have taken what the majority have agreed the case to be. There may well be a 5% margin of error in ethnic identification but not more in this study, where we take the rank of major general and above with the top military posts in the country. That may increase in the study that we will issue in the near future where we are sifting through the background of over 200 Birgadier Generals from both the Emperor and Derg era.

b. The study has solicited the help and input of several former officers – from generals to other officers –from Air force, Ground Force, and Navy. It has also solicited a learned review from knowledgeable civilians who had intimate knowledge of both periods (including close relatives) to verify the final version.

2. Keys to symbols:

a. **** shows those non-Derg members but loyal to Col Mengistu. Gebre Kirstos Bulli, the only Big General in the list is included because he was among a handful of officers the Derg promoted to a rank of General for the first time. He was also the most influenatial milliary officer directly reporting to the Chairman of the Derg, and having parallel positions with the Defense Minsistry’s Military Operations Main Department. He was presumed killed in the early 1980s after attempting to escape via Djibouti and having fallen out of grace with Col Mengistu as a result of a fist fight with then Chief of Staff Merid Negussie.

b.*** Means those who were members of the Derg but got to their position following the professional track and stayed in the military unlike their colleagues who were transferred from civilian life to military at a later period.

c. **. Derg members who were promoted to the rank of General and Admiral after more than a decade of life as civilian officials , Derg and WPE reps, and ministers with their initial ranks as majors, colonels, Lt, Commanders etc when they became Derg members in 1974. Almost all of them were transferred and promoted to the military after the aborted coup of 1989.

d. *. Those who were not Derg members but were deemed loyal and also capable enough to fill the vacuum created after the coup of 1989.

e. All those without any asterisk marks are carrier professionals who made it to the military hierarchy step by step based on their merit, time of service, education and training, and military exploits in the east, south, and northern fronts. Their training and education was not only in country at Holeta , Harar Academy, etc. but training in the best military schools in US, Europe, Israel etc.

Table 1: The most senior officers of the armed forces and police of the Imperial regime – up to 1974

No Full Name Rank Highest known Position Held During The Imperial Regime Ethnicity Remarks
1. Kebede Gebre Lt. General (Army) Minister of Defense Amhara
2. Merid Mengesha Lt. General Minister of Defense Amhara
3 Eyasu Mengesha Lt. General (Army) Chief of Staff of Imperial Armed forces Tigre
4 Abieye Abebe Lt. General (Army) Minister of Defense Amhara
5 Esayas Gebre Selassie Lt. General (Army) Commander in Chief of Ground Forces Tigre
6 Haile Baykedagen Lt. General (Army) Chief Staff of the Imperial Armed forces, Division Commander Tigre, Amhara
7 Abebe Gemeda Lt. General (Army) Commander of Imperial Bodyguard Oromo
8 Assefa Ayane Lt. General (Army, Air force) Chief of Staff of Imperial Armed Forces, Commander of the Air Force. Amhara
9 Wolde Selassie Bereka Lt. General (Army) Chief of Staff of the Imperial Armed forces, Commander in Chief of Ground forces Gurage
10 Deressie Dubale Lt. General (Army) Commander in Chief of Ground Forces Gurage & Amhara
11 Mulugeta Bulli Maj. General** (Army) Chief of Staff of the Imperial Armed forces, later made civilian, a minister of Social affairs Oromo Leading role in organizing the Armed forces after Fascist invasion
12 Assefa Demisse Lt . General Head of Protocol to the Emperor Amhara & Oromo
13 Yilma Shibeshi Lt. General (Police) Commander of Imperial Police Forces Gurage & Amhara
14. Belete Abebe Lt. General Chief of Staff , Territorial Army Amhara
15 Teshome Ergetu Lt. General (Army) Division Commander Gurage & Oromo Killed by rebels in Eritrea before the revolution 1974
16 Jagama Kello Lt. General (Army) Division Commander Oromo A patriot who led 3000 patriots and fought during the Fascist Italy’s invasion.
17 Nega Haile Selassie Lt. General (Army) Emperor’s Special Cabinet Amhara
18. Debebe Haile Mariam Lt. General (Army) Commander of Imperial Body guard Amhara
19 Aman Mickael Andom Lt. General (Army) Division Commander Tigre During the Derg Minister of Defense. Then, Head of State
20 Abebe Wolde Meskel Maj. General Commander of Police force Amhara
21 Degneh Gusgsa Maj. General (Army) Division Commander Oromo
22. Shiferaw Tesema Maj. General Senior staff of Ground forces Amhara
23 Yakob Gebre Leul Maj. General Senior Staff, Ground Forces Eritrea
24. Tadesse Melke Maj. General (Army) Commander of Genet Millitary Training Center Amhara
25. Abera Wolde Mariam Maj General (Air force) Commander of the Air Force Oromo & Amhara
26. Tafesse Lemma Maj General Division Commander and Palace protocol Amhara & Gurage
27 Kebede Worku Maj. General Division commander Amhara
28 Wolde Tsadik Gebere Meskel Maj. General Deputy Commander Imperial Bodyguard Gurage
29 Tsige Gezmu Maj. General Budget and Finance Head Ministery of Defense Amhara
30 Gashaw Kebede Maj. General Police commander of Eritrea Amhara
31 Abebe Wolde Mariam Maj. General (Army) Senior staff in Ground forces Amhara
32 Bereket G. Medhin Maj. General Police Commander in Kaffa Tigre
33 Kelebesa Beka Maj. General Commander of police in Sidamo Oromo
34 Girma Mulat Maj. General Police Commander Amhara
35 Kebede Wogaye Maj. General Deputy Commander Imperial Bodyguard Amhara
36 Abebe Wolde Selassie Maj. General Police commander in Wollo Amhara
37 Siyuom Gedle Giorgis Maj. General (Army) Division Commander Amhara
38 Moges Beyene Maj. General Commander of Police in Gamo Goffa Amhara
39 Gizaw Belayneh Maj. General (Army) Division Commander, Amhara Chief of staff early Derg.
40 Merid Gizaw Maj. General (Army) Senior staff Ministry of Defense , Divisional Commander Amhara
41 Tadesse Gebre Maj. General Police Commander Amhara
42 Wakjira Sarda Maj. General Senior Staff , Minister of Defense, Division Commander Oromo
43 Nega Tegene Maj. General (Army) Division Commander Amhara
44 Tedla Mekonnen Maj. General Deputy Commander Ground Forces Amhara

Table 2: The Socialist Military Derg Regime, later PDR Highest Ranking Army, Air force, Navy and Police Officers

No Full Name Rank Highest known Position Held During The Derg regime Ethnicity & Region Remarks
1 Tesfaye Gebre Kidan Lt. General (Army) Minister of Defense Oromo Derg Standing committee & WPE Politburo member, one of the most powerful persons in the system, Vice President after 1986. President for one week.
2 Haile Giorgis Habte Mariam Maj. General (Imp. Bodyguard, 2nd course) Minister of Defense Amhara Chief of Staff Under Lt. Gen. Tesfaye , took over as Minster of Defense
3 Merid Negussie Maj. General (Imp. Bodyguard, 3rd course) Chief of Staff Oromo Chief of Staff , committed suicide during the 1981 aborted coup
4 Gebre Kirstos Bulli Brig General (Army, Holeta) Chief/head of Derg’s National Military Campaign Department Oromo Subsumed and oversaw functions of Defense Ministry operations Department, parallel but more powerful structure under the Chairman of the Derg himself until 1984.
5 Hailu Gebere Michael Maj. General (Army, Holeta) Commander of the Ground Forces Oromo & Gurage Executed after the aborted coup of 1989.
6 Tesfaye Birhanu R. Admiral (Navy, 1st course) Commander of the Navy Wolayita Imprisoned after the 1989 aborted coup.
7 Fanata Belay Maj. General (Airforce) Commander of the Air Force Amhara Killed after the 1989 coup while in prison.
8 Demissie Bulto Maj. General (Imp. Bodyguard, 3rd course, Airborne) Commander of the 2nd Revolutionary Army, Eritrea Oromo Killed during the aborted coup of 1989
9 Amaha Desta Maj. General (Air force) Commander of the Air Force Amhara Committed suicide during the aborted coup of 1989.
10 Zeleke Beyene Maj. General (Army, Holeta) Commander of the 4th Revolutionary Army (Central) Amhara Member of the Derg Central Committee, promoted from Col to Maj. General after serving many years as a civilian. Served until 1991.
11 Asrat Biru Maj. General (Imp. Bodyguard, 3rd course) Commander of the 3rd Army (Tigray) Oromo Held various high level positions
12. Haddis Tedla Lt. General (Air force) Chief of Staff Amhara Dergue’s Standing Committee & WPE politburo member, promoted after the coup from a rank of a major and long time life as civilian top official. Served until 1991
13 Mesfin Gebre Kal Maj. General (Army, Harar Academy, Sandhurst) Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations Tigre Son of a patriot who fought the Italians during the fascist invasion, previously held high level positions in the minister of Defense, promoted after the coup -1991
14 Yewalashet Girma R. Admiral (Navy) Commander of the Navy Amhara & Gurage Derg & WPE CC member, promoted after the 1981 coup from a long life as a civilian minster and a Lt. Commander to R. Admiral, held until 1991
15 Sioum Mekonnen Maj. General (Army, Holeta) Deputy Chief of Staff for Intel. Amhara Promoted as Deputy Chief of Staff after the coup of 1989. Held the position until 1991.
16 Abebe Wolde Mariam Maj., General (Air Force) Deputy Minister of Defense for logistics Gurage and Amhara From early years to 1983
17 Alemayheu Agonafer Maj. General (Air force) Commander of the Air Force Amhara Promoted after the coup of 1989 and held until 1991.
18 Embibel Ayele Maj. General (Army, Harar Academy 1st course) Commander of the Ground Forces Amhara Promoted after 1989 and held the position until 1991
19 Berhanu Jembere Maj. General (Army, Holeta) Commander of the 1st Revolutionary Army Amhara Promoted from a Major and a civilian official. Died of plane crash before 1991.
20 Wubshet Dessie Maj. General (Army, Harar Academy) Commander of the 2nd Revolutionary Army (Eritrea) Oromo Derg Standing Committee member, a major who was a long time civilian, promoted after the 1989 coup.
21 Kefelgen Yibza Maj. General (Army, Holeta) Commander of Central Command, Commander of ground forces Sodo Gurage Held various high level positions in the military until 1991.
22 Tilahun Argaw Maj. General (Army, Holeta) Core commander, Commander of Special Command, Assab Gurage & Amhara Until 1991.
23 Regassa JImma Maj. General (Imp. Body Guard, 3rd course) Commander of the 2nd Revolutionary Army Oromo Held various high positions in the military as a commander and commandant of the Holeta Military Academy, until 1991
24 Getachew Gedamu Maj. General (Army, Holeta) Deputy Commander of 1st Revolutinary Army (Harar) Amhara Held various high level positions until 1991
25 Kinfe Gebrel Dinku Maj. General (Imp. Bodyguard, 3rd course) Head of Mil. Operations Ministry of Defense Gurage Held various high positions until 1991
26 Hussien Ahmed Maj. General (Army, Harar Academy 1st course) Deputy Commander of 2st Revolutionary Army (Eritrea) Amhara Held the position before and after 1989 coup until he fled to Saudi Araba with other top generals in Eritrea in 1991.
27 Alemayehu Ayele Maj. General (Army , Holeta) Deputy Commander for Logistics of Ground Forces Amhara Until 1991
28 Bedlu Duki Maj. General (Army, Holeta) Head of Logistics Ministry of Defense Oromo from Showa Until 1991
29 Wegayehu Gashaw Maj. General (Army, Holeta) Deputy Commander 2nd Revolutionary Army Amhara & Oromo (Mixed) Held various positions Until 1991
30 Merdasa Lelisa Maj. General (Army, Holeta) Core commander, Commander of Tewodros Task force 1991 Oromo Until 1991
31 Abera Abebe Maj. General (Army, special force, Holeta) Chief/Head of Military Operations Department Minster of Defense Oromo Killed after the aborted coup of 1989
32 Abdulahi Umer Maj General (Army, Harar Academy 1st course) Head of Logistics Minister of Defense Aderi Imprisoned after the 1989 coup.
33 Mulatu Negash Maj. General (Imp. Bodyguard) Commander of the third Revo Army, Mixed Imprisoned after the army’s’ defeat in Tigray until 1991.
34 Kumleachew Dejene Maj. General (Army, Holeta) Deputy Commander of the 2nd Revo Army (Eritrea) Amhara Fled to exile after the 1989 coup.
35 Worku Zewdie Maj. General Commander of Ethiopian Police Forces Amhara Executed after the aborted coup Of 1989.
36 Zewde Gebreyes Maj. General Core Commander Amhara Executed after the aborted coup of 1989
37 Alemayehu Desta Maj. General Deputy Commander of Ground Forces Amhara Executed after the aborted coup of 1989.
38 Gebreyes Wolde Hana Maj. General Head of Political Department of the Revo. Armed Forces Amhara Derg & WPE CC member, but assigned as head of military cadres from early days. Killed in a plane crash accident before 1991.
39 Negussie Wolde Michael Maj. General Commander of Ethiopian Police Forces pre 1986 Amhara Later transferred as a civilian Minister in the Council of State.
40 Girma Neway Maj. General Commander of Ethiopian Police Forces after 1989 Aborted coup Amhara & Gurage Derg & WPE CC member, promoted from a long life as civilian Major after the 1989 coup.

Table 3: Ethiopian Army by Ethnic Tigrean officers High Ranking Military Officials Principal Defense Departments (Woyane)

No Job Division Name & Rank Ethnic Group
1 Armed Forces Chief-of-Staff General Smora Yenus Tigre
2 Armed Forces Head of Training Lt.General Tadesse Worde Tigre
3 Head of Logistics Lt.General Gezae Abera Tigre
4 Head of Intelligence Br. General Gebre Dela Tigre
5 Armed Forces Head of Campaign Major General Gebreegzher Tigre
6 Armed Forces Head of Engineering Lt.General Berhane Negash Tigre
7 Chief of the Air Force Br. General Molla Haile Mariam Tigre

Table 4: Heads of the Nation’s four Military Commands (Woyane)

No Job Division Name & Rank Ethnic Group
1 Central Command General Abebaw Tadesse Agew
2 Northern Command Lt.General Saere Mekonene Tigre
3 South Eastern Command Lt.General Abraha Wolde Tigre
4 Western Command Br. General Seyoum Hagos Tigre

Table 5: Army Divisional Commanders (Woyane) Central Command

No Job Description Name and Rank Ethnic Back Ground
1 31st Army Division Colonel Tsegaye Marx Tigre
2 33rd Army Division Colonel Kidane Tigre
3 35th Army Division Colonel Misganaw Alemu Tigre
4 24th Army Division Colonel Work Aynu Tigre
5 22nd Army Division Colonel Dikul Tigre
6 8th Mechanized Division Colonel Jamal Mohammed Tigre

Table 6: Northern Command (Woyane) South Eastern Command (Woyane)

1 21st Army Division Colonel Gueshi Gebre Tigre
2 11th Army Division Colonel Workidu Tigre
3 25th Army Division Colonel Tesfay Sahiel Tigre
4 22nd Army Division Colonel Teklay Klashin Tigre
5 4th Mechanized Division Colonel Hinsaw Giorgis Tigre

Table 7:

No Job Description Name and Rank Ethnic Back Ground
1 19st Army Division Colonel Wodi Guaae Tigre
2 44st Army Division Colonel Zewdu Tefera Tigre
3 13th Army Division Colonel Sherifo Tigre
4 12th Army Division Colonel Mulugeta Berhe Tigre
5 32nd Army Division Colonel Abraha Tselim Tigre
6 6th Mechanized Division Colonel G/Medhin Fekede Tigre

Table 8: Western Command (Woyane)

No Job Description Name and Rank Ethnic Back Ground
1 23rd Army Division Colonel Wolde Belalom Tigre
2 43rd Army Division Colonel Wodi Abate Tigre
3 26th Army Division Colonel Mebrahtu Tigre
4 7th Mechanized Division Colonel Gebre Mariam Tigre

Table 9: Commanders in Different Defense Departments (Woyane)

No Job Description Military rank Name Ethnic Back Ground
1 Agazi Commando Division B.General Mohammed Esha Tigre
2 Addis Ababa & Surrounding Area Guard Colonel Zenebe Amare Tigre
3 Palace Guard Colonel Gerensay Tigre
4 Banking Guard Colonel Hawaz Woldu Tigre
5 Engineering College Colonel Halefom Eggigu Tigre
6 Military Health Science B.General Tesfay Gidey Tigre
7 Mulugeta Buli Technical College Colonel Meleya Amare Tigre
8 Resource Management College Colonel Letay Tigre
9 Siftana Command College B.General Moges Haile Tigre
10 Blaten Military Training Center Colonel Salih Berihu Tigre
11 Wourso Military Training Center Colonel Negash Heluf Tigre
12 Awash Arba Military Training Center Colonel Muze Tigre
13 Birr Valley Military Training Center Colonel Negassie Shikortet Tigre
14 Defense Administration Department B.General Mehari Zewde Tigre
15 Defense Aviation B.General Kinfe Dagnew Tigre
16 Defense Research and Study B.General Halefom Chento Tigre
17 Defense Justice Department Colonel Askale Tigre
18 Secretary of the Chief-of-Staff Colonel Tsehaye Manjus Tigre
19 Indoctrination Center B.General Akale Asaye Amhara
20 Communications Department Colonel Sebbhat Tigre
21 Foreign Relations Department Colonel Hassene Tigre
22 Special Forces Coordination Department B.General Fisseha Manjus Tigre
23 Operations Department Colonel Wodi Tewk Tigre
24 Planning, Readiness and Programming Department Colonel Teklay Ashebir Tigre
25 Defense Industries Coordination Department Colonel Wodi Negash Tigre
26 Defense Finance Department Colonel Zewdu Tigre
27 Defense Purchasing Department Colonel Gedey Tigre
28 Defense Budget Department Ato/Mr. Berhane Tigre

Ginbot 7 Movement for Justice, Freedom and Democracy
Tel +44 208 133 5670 +44 203 286 9661 [email protected]

*We produced the Graphics &  Appendices using the data  in the report by  Ginbot 7 Movement for Justice, Freedom and Democracy.